Bladder cancer is abnormal cell growth in the bladder. There are several types of bladder cancer: 

  • Urothelial Carcinoma: This is the most common type of bladder cancer occurring in the urothelial cells of the bladder.
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma: This type occurs in the thinner cells lining the bladder.
  • Adenocarcinoma: This is a rare form which occurs in the mucus producing cells of the bladder. 

The most common symptom of bladder cancer is blood in urine other symptoms, which include:

  • Burning sensation when passing urine
  • Urge to pass urine more frequently
  • Lower back pain

When detected early there is high recovery rate for those diagnosed with bladder cancer. This is because there are several types of bladder cancer treatment available.


This is the process of removing the tumour and some healthy tissue through an operation. There are many types of surgery for bladder cancer. In one type, a tool called a cystoscope is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder. The tumour is then removed using a wire loop. The patient is under anaesthesia so no pain is felt. 

In the second type of surgery, the whole bladder is removed through as process called radical cystectomy. Men have to have their prostate and urethra removed and women have to have their reproductive organs removed (uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries). For both male and female patients lymph nodes in the pelvic region are removed. 

For women, the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and part of the vagina may be removed. For all patients, lymph nodes in the pelvis are removed to prevent the cancer from spreading through the lymph nodes. 

Urinary diversion

If the bladder removal process is done then the surgeon needs to create a way for the patient to pass urine. The surgeon will use a part of the small intestine to divert the urine outside of the body into a bag that is attached to the stoma.  

Other therapies

Aside from surgery, other therapies may include chemotherapy and immunotherapy. In chemotherapy drugs are used to kill cancer cells and stop them from dividing. The drug schedule is determined by the urologist seeing the patient. Immunotherapy enhances the body's immune system to fight cancer. A combination of both immunotherapy and chemotherapy may be used to treat bladder cancer.

The treatment plan for a patient is decided by the urologist who specialises in bladder cancer. With such advanced treatment methods patients can expect to recover faster.